Category: Studies

Does Piperacillin-Tazobactam Measure Up to Meropenem for ESBL Bloodstream Infections?

Published October 15, 2018

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram negative bacilli (GNB) have been classified by the CDC as a serious threat in its report Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013.  Based on conservative estimates, ESBL-producing GNB are responsible for at least 26,000 infections and 1,700 deaths annually. While carbapenems (e.g., meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, doripenem, and ertapenem) are considered… Read More

Antimicrobial Stewardship and Rapid Diagnostic Testing in Acute Care

Published June 21, 2018

Implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) typically requires a multipronged approach.  The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America Guidelines on ASP implementation recommend the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) that include active ASP interventions as one such approach to improve clinical outcomes and reduce inappropriate antimicrobial… Read More

Opportunities to Improve Fluoroquinolone Use in Adults Exist in Ambulatory Care Settings

Published March 29, 2018

Systemic fluoroquinolones* (FQ) currently in use include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, delafloxacin and ofloxacin.   These agents have a number of FDA-approved indications including respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, skin and soft-tissue, intraabdominal, and gastrointestinal tract infections. Because of ongoing safety concerns with FQ use, the FDA issued drug safety communications associated with systemically administered FQ in… Read More

Evidence-Based Implementation Guide to Reduce Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

Published January 25, 2018

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as “isolation of pre-specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen obtained from a person without symptoms or signs referable to urinary infection“.   Despite current recommendations to treat ASB only during pregnancy, prior to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or before other urologic procedures where mucosal… Read More

Antibiotic-Associated Adverse Drug Events in Hospitalized Patients

Published October 10, 2017

Antibiotics are life-saving medications that make modern medical care such as surgical procedures, organ transplantations, cancer chemotherapy possible.  Unfortunately, their use can be associated with a number of adverse drug events (ADE) including allergic reactions, end-organ toxicity, colonization of and subsequent infection due to resistant bacteria, and Clostridium difficile infection. A previous study by Shehab N,… Read More

Web-Based Education Improves Awareness of Nurses on Antimicrobial Stewardship in LTCF

Published September 12, 2017

Nurses are a pivotal part of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in all healthcare settings including long-term care facilities (LTCF).  Providing AS education to healthcare providers such as nurses is not only a part of the CDC AS core elements, it may also help reduce inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing.  A recently published study assessed the impact of a… Read More

Cephalexin With or Without TMP-SMX Showed Similar Efficacy for Uncomplicated Cellulitis

Published August 1, 2017

The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends use of antimicrobial agent active only against streptococci (e.g., cephalexin) for management of cellulitis in patients without systemic signs of infection, penetrating trauma, evidence of MRSA, and injection drug use.  Despite this recommendation, healthcare providers frequently prescribe additional antimicrobial agents with anti-MRSA activity (e.g., cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). A… Read More

Pharmacist-Driven Intervention Improves Care of Patients with S aureus Bacteremia

Published July 18, 2017

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated significant morbidity and mortality.  Previous studies have shown Infectious Diseases (ID) consultation for patients with SAB optimizes care and reduces mortality.  A recent study highlights outcomes of a pharmacist-driven intervention to encourage adherence to SAB quality-of-care measures and ID consultation in an Ohio medical center.  The study investigators found that these interventions significantly increased compliance to SAB quality-of-care measures from… Read More

Page last reviewed: November 8, 2018